Progressive Ratio and Effort Related Choice Task (PR/ERC) for Mice

Model 89549A


Adapted for mice, this touch screen task has been shown equivalent to those performed with levers or nose-poke holes in measuring motivation and reward-related decision making.


Measuring motivation and reward-related decision making, this touch screen task has been shown equivalent to those performed with levers or nose-poke holes. Subjects must touch the screen progressively more times to receive reward. Comparing the touch screen results with the non-touch screen literature it is evident that the touch screen paradigm produces less variable data (consequently, easier to detect significant effects) and is more sensitive to manipulations which promote PR performance (useful when screening for drugs to alleviate low motivation).

Example Neural Systems Involved

  • Dopamine

Clinical Areas Showing Impairment

  • Huntington's
  • Schizophrenia

Cognitive Functions Covered

  • Motivation
  • Decision making

Typical Training Times (depends on strain and age)

  • About 16 sessions from first habituation to reach stable PR performance


  • A test of motivation and reward-related decision making
  • All training paradigms and advice included


Kljakic, O., Jan?čkov?, H., Skirzewski, M., Reichelt, A., Memar, S., Mestikawy, S. El, Li, Y., Saksida, L. M., Bussey, T. J., Prado, V. F., & Prado, M. A. M. (2022). Functional dissociation of behavioral effects from acetylcholine and glutamate released from cholinergic striatal interneurons. The FASEB Journal, 36(2), e22135. - Abstract

DeBrosse, A. C., Wheeler, A. M., Barrow, J. C., & Carr, G. V. (2020). Inhibition of Catechol-O-methyltransferase Does Not Alter Effort-Related Choice Behavior in a Fixed Ratio/Concurrent Chow Task in Male Mice. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 14. - Abstract

Kim, E., White, M. A., Phillips, B. U., Lopez-Cruz, L., Kim, H., Heath, C. J., Lee, J. E., Saksida, L. M., Sreedharan, J., & Bussey, T. J. (2020). Coexistence of perseveration and apathy in the TDP-43Q331K knock-in mouse model of ALS?FTD. Translational Psychiatry, 10(1). - Abstract

Hailwood, J. M., Heath, C. J., Phillips, B. U., Robbins, T. W., Saksida, L. M., & Bussey, T. J. (2019). Blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors facilitates motivated behaviour and rescues a model of antipsychotic-induced amotivation. Neuropsychopharmacology, 44(6), 1068?1075. - Abstract

Heath, C. J., O'Callaghan, C., Mason, S. L., Phillips, B. U., Saksida, L. M., Robbins, T. W., Barker, R. A., Bussey, T. J., & Sahakian, B. J. (2019). A Touchscreen Motivation Assessment Evaluated in Huntington's Disease Patients and R6/1 Model Mice. Frontiers in Neurology, 10. - Abstract

Lim, J., Kim, E., Noh, H. J., Kang, S., Phillips, B. U., Kim, D. G., Bussey, T. J., Saksida, L., Heath, C. J., & Kim, C. H. (2019). Assessment of mGluR5 KO mice under conditions of low stress using a rodent touchscreen apparatus reveals impaired behavioural flexibility driven by perseverative responses. Molecular Brain, 12(1). - Abstract

Hailwood, J. M., Heath, C. J., Robbins, T. W., Saksida, L. M., & Bussey, T. J. (2018). Validation and optimisation of a touchscreen progressive ratio test of motivation in male rats. Psychopharmacology, 235(9), 2739?2753. - Abstract

Kim, E. W., Phillips, B. U., Heath, C. J., Cho, S. Y., Kim, H., Sreedharan, J., Song, H. T., Lee, J. E., Bussey, T. J., Kim, C. H., Kim, E., & Saksida, L. M. (2017). Optimizing reproducibility of operant testing through reinforcer standardization: Identification of key nutritional constituents determining reward strength in touchscreens. Molecular Brain, 10(1). - Abstract

Heath, Christopher J.; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, L. M. (2015). Touchscreen Assessment of Motivation and Reinforcement-Related Choice Behaviour in Mice. Psychopharmacology, 232(21?22), 4043?4057. - Abstract

Heath, C. J., Bussey, T. J., & Saksida, L. M. (2015). Motivational assessment of mice using the touchscreen operant testing system: Effects of dopaminergic drugs. Psychopharmacology, 232(21?22), 4043?4057. - Abstract


Required Accessories

Second Generation Bussey-Saksida Touch Screen Chamber for Mice
Second Generation Bussey-Saksida Touch Screen Chamber for Mice
Model 80614A

Second Generation Bussey Chamber developed for mice with Intelli-interface supports up to 20 chambers on one PC. On the strength of 10 years of feedback and development, the system is even more flexible and with more features.

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